Catholic Monarchs - Wikipedia
Ferdinand of Aragon was 17 and Isabella of Castile was 18 when they I'll choose the winner from among those who comment by Friday at 6. The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was constantly on the move, in order to bolster local support In September , Portugal and the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon and Castile resolved major issues between them through the. Ferdinand and Isabella are regarded as the creators of modern Spain, but they did The final blow to the already weakened relations between Philip and the .
In after Ferdinand had gained control of the revenues of the wealthy and powerful Spanish military ordershe created the Council of Military Orders to oversee them.
Domestic policy[ edit ] The Catholic Monarchs set out to restore royal authority in Spain. To accomplish their goal, they first created a group named the Holy Brotherhood.
These men were used as a judicial police force for Castile, as well as to attempt to keep Castilian nobles in check. To establish a more uniform judicial systemthe Catholic Monarchs created the Royal Counciland appointed magistrates judges to run the towns and cities.
This establishment of royal authority is known as the Pacification of Castileand can be seen as one of the crucial steps toward the creation of one of Europe's first strong nation-states. Isabella also sought various ways to diminish the influence of the Cortes Generales in Castile, though Ferdinand was too thoroughly Aragonese to do anything of the sort with the equivalent systems in the Crown of Aragon. Even after his death and the union of the crowns under one monarch, the Aragonese, Catalan, and Valencian Corts parliaments retained significant power in their respective regions.
Further, the monarchs continued ruling through a form of medieval contractualism, which made their rule pre-modern in a few ways.
The Connection Between Ferdinand And Isabella And The King James Bible
One of those is that they traveled from town to town throughout the kingdom in order to promote loyalty, rather than possessing any single administrative center.
Another is that each community and region was connected to them via loyalty to the crown, rather than bureaucratic ties. Painting of the s. Along with the desire of the Catholic Monarchs to extend their dominion to all the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, their reign was characterized by religious unification of the peninsula through militant Catholicism.
This was to ensure that Jews and Muslims who converted to Christianity did not revert to their previous faiths.
The papal bull gave the sovereigns full powers to name inquisitors, but the papacy retained the right to formally appoint the royal nominees. The inquisition did not have jurisdiction over Jews and Muslims who did not convert. Since in the kingdom of Aragon it had existed sincethe Spanish Inquisition was the only common institution for the two kingdoms.
Torquemada pursued aggressive policies toward converted Jews conversos and moriscos. The pope also granted the Catholic Kings the right of patronage over the ecclesiastical establishment in Granada and the Canary Islands, which meant the control of the state in religious affairs.
The monarchs began a series of campaigns known as the Granada Warwhich was aided by Pope Sixtus IV's granting the tithe revenue and implementing a crusade tax so that the monarchs could finance the war.
After 10 years of fighting the Granada War ended in when Emir Boabdil surrendered the keys of the Alhambra Palace in Granada to the Castilian soldiers. With the fall of Granada in JanuaryIsabella and Ferdinand pursued further policies of religious unification of their realms, in particular the expulsion of Jews who refused to convert to Christianity.
After a number of revolts, Ferdinand and Isabella ordered the expulsion from Spain of all Jews and Muslims. The Catholic Monarchs decided to introduce the Inquisition to Castile, and requested the Pope's assent. The bull gave the monarchs exclusive authority to name the inquisitors. During the reign of the Catholic Monarchs and long afterwards the Inquisition was active in prosecuting people for violations of Catholic orthodoxy such as crypto-Judaism, heresy, Protestantism, blasphemy, and bigamy.
The last trial for crypto-Judaism was held in In the monarchs issued a decree of expulsion of Jews, known formally as the Alhambra Decreewhich gave Jews in Spain four months to either convert to Catholicism or leave Spain.
Spanish Empire Although the Catholic Monarchs pursued a partnership in many matters, because of the histories of their respective kingdoms, they did not always have unified viewpoint in foreign policy. Despite that, they did have a successful expansionist foreign policy due to a number of factors. The victory over the Muslims in Granada that allowed Ferdinand to involve himself in policy outside the Iberian peninsula.
Ferdinand and Isabella marry - HISTORY
Aragon had a traditional rivalry with Francewhich had been traditional allies with Castile. Castile's foreign interests were focused on the Atlantic, making Castile's funding of the voyage of Columbus an extension of existing interests.
The treaty set boundaries for overseas expansion which were at the time disadvantageous to Castile, but the treaty resolved any further Portuguese claims on the crown of Castile. Portugal did not take advantage of Castile's and Aragon's focus on the reconquest of Granada.
Following the reestablishment of good relations, the Catholic Monarchs made two strategic marriages to Portuguese royalty.
The matrimonial policy of the monarchs sought advantageous marriages for their five children, forging royal alliances for the long term benefit of Spain.
Their first-born, a daughter named Isabellamarried Afonso of Portugalforging important ties between these two neighboring kingdoms that would lead to enduring peace and future alliance. This ensured alliance with the Holy Roman Empirea powerful, far-reaching European territory which assured Spain's future political security. Their only son, Johnmarried Margaret of Austriaseeking to maintain ties with the Hapsburg dynasty, on which Spain relied heavily.
Their fourth child, Mariamarried Manuel I of Portugalstrengthening the link forged by Isabella's elder sister's marriage. Their fifth child, Catherinemarried Arthur, Prince of Wales and heir to the throne of England, in ; he died at the age of 15 a few months later, and she married his younger brother shortly after he became King Henry VIII of England in These alliances were not all long lasting, with their and heir-apparent Juan dying young; Catherine was divorced by Henry VIII; and Joanna's husband Philip dying young, with the widowed Joanna deemed mentally unfit to rule.
Many of Spain's oldest and finest families scrambled to reconstruct family trees. The Inquisition, a state-controlled Castilian tribunal, authorized by papal bull inthat soon extended throughout Spain, had the task of enforcing uniformity of religious practice. It was originally intended to investigate the sincerity of Conversos, especially those in the clergy, who had been accused of being crypto-Jews. Tomas de Torquemada, a descendant of Conversos, was the most effective and notorious of the Inquisition's prosecutors.
For years religious laws were laxly enforced, particularly in Aragon, and converted Jews and Moriscos continued to observe their previous religions in private. Inhowever, a serious rebellion broke out among the Moriscos of Andalusia, who sealed their fate by appealing to the Ottoman Empire for aid.
Isabella I of Castile
The incident led to mass expulsions throughout Spain and to the eventual exodus of hundreds of thousands of Conversos and Moriscos, even those who had apparently become devout Christians. In the exploration and exploitation of the New World, Spain found an outlet for the crusading energies that the war against the Muslims had stimulated. In the fifteenth century, Portuguese mariners were opening a route around Africa to the East.
At the same time as the Castilians, they had planted colonies in the Azores and in the Canary Islands also Canaries; Spanish, Canariasthe latter of which had been assigned to Spain by papal decree. The conquest of Granada allowed the Catholic Kings to divert their attention to exploration, although Christopher Columbus's first voyage in was financed by foreign bankers. The Treaty of Tordesillas, which Spain and Portugal signed one year later, moved the line of division westward and allowed Portugal to claim Brazil.
New discoveries and conquests came in quick succession. Vasco Nunez de Balboa reached the Pacific inand the survivors of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition completed the circumnavigation of the globe in In the conquistador Hernando Cortes subdued the Aztecs in Mexico with a handful of followers, and between and Francisco Pizzaro overthrew the empire of the Incas and established Spanish dominion over Peru.
Inwhen Columbus brought 1, colonists with him on his second voyage, a royal administrator had already been appointed for the Indies. The Council of the Indies Consejo de Indiasestablished in acted as an advisory board to the crown on colonial affairs, and the House of Trade Casa de Contratacion regulated trade with the colonies. The newly established colonies were not Spanish but Castilian.