Interpersonal communication - Wikipedia
When you are looking at interpersonal communication you are looking at the relationship and sharing of information between two individuals how of effective. Dyadic communication is the part of a relationship that calls for "something to happen". Partners will. The Relationship Between. Interpersonal Communication. Competence and Social Support. Among Elderly Support Groups in Retirement Communities.
Buildup — During this stage, people begin to trust and care about each other.
The need for intimacy, compatibility and such filtering agents as common background and goals will influence whether or not interaction continues. Continuation — This stage follows a mutual commitment to quite a strong and close long-term friendship, romantic relationship, or even marriage.
It is generally a long, relatively stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship. Deterioration — Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble. Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure.
Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others. Ending — The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.
Terminating a relationship[ edit ] According to the latest Systematic Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors associated with Life Satisfaction dating fromstable and secure relationships are beneficial, and correspondingly, relationship dissolution is harmful. Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth. They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e.
This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual. Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships. One reason cited for divorce is infidelity.
The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators. Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship. Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends.
Individuals in long-distance relationshipsLDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs. LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days.
Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs. Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction.
Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish.
A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships. Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills.
Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior.
Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing. Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life. The boundary conditions for this theory are there must be numerous people communicating and interacting and thus assigning meaning to situations or objects.
Relational dialectics theory[ edit ] Main article: Relational dialectics A dialectical approach to interpersonal communication was developed by scholars Leslie Baxter and Barbara Montgomery.
Their dialectical approach revolves around the notions of contradiction, change, praxis, and totality. Influenced by Hegel, Marx, and Bakhtin, the dialectical approach is informed by an epistemology that refers to a method of reasoning by which one searches for understanding through the tension of opposing arguments.
Utilizing the dialectical approach, Baxter and Montgomery developed two types of dialectics that function in interpersonal relationships: These include autonomy-connection, novelty-predictability, openness-closedness. In order to understand relational dialectics theory, we must first understand specifically what encompasses the term discourse.
Therefore, discourses are "systems of meaning that are uttered whenever we make intelligible utterances aloud with others or in our heads when we hold internal conversations". However, it also shows how the meanings within our conversations may be interpreted, understood, and of course misunderstood.
Numerous examples of this can be seen in the daily communicative acts we participate in. However, dialectical tensions within our discourses can most likely be seen in interpersonal communication due to the close nature of interpersonal relationships.
The well known proverb "opposites attract, but birds of a feather flock together" exemplifies these dialectical tensions. These consist of connectedness and separateness, certainty and uncertainty, and openness and closedness. Connectedness and separateness[ edit ] Most individuals naturally desire to have a close bond in the interpersonal relationships we are a part of. However, it is also assumed that no relationship can be enduring without the individuals involved within it also having their time alone to themselves.
Individuals who are only defined by a specific relationship they are a part of can result in the loss of individual identity. Certainty and uncertainty[ edit ] Individuals desire a sense of assurance and predictability in the interpersonal relationships they are a part of.
However, they also desire having a variety in their interactions that come from having spontaneity and mystery within their relationships as well. Much research has shown that relationships which become bland and. This assumption can be supported if one looks at the postulations within social penetration theory, which is another theory used often within the study of communication. This tension may also spawn a natural desire to keep an amount of personal privacy from other individuals.
Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
The struggle in this sense, illustrates the essence of relational dialectics. Coordinated management of meaning[ edit ] Main article: Coordinated management of meaning Coordinated management of meaning is a theory assuming that two individuals engaging in an interaction are each constructing their own interpretation and perception behind what a conversation means.
A core assumption within this theory includes the belief that all individuals interact based on rules that are expected to be followed while engaging in communication.
These include constitutive and regulative rules. Constitutive rules "are essentially rules of meaning used by communicators to interpret or understand an event or message". If one individual sends a message to the other, the message receiver must then take that interaction and interpret what it means. Often, this can be done on an almost instantaneous level because the interpretation rules applied to the situation are immediate and simple.
This simply depends on each communicator's previous beliefs and perceptions within a given context and how they can apply these rules to the current communicative interaction.
Important to understand within the constructs of this theory is the fact that these "rules" of meaning "are always chosen within a context". The authors of this theory believe that there are a number of different context an individual can refer to when interpreting a communicative event.
These include the relationship context, the episode context, the self-concept context, and the archetype context. Relationship context This context assumes that there are mutual expectations between individuals who are members of a group. Episode context This context simply refers to a specific event in which the communicative act is taking place. Archetype context This context is essentially one's image of what his or her belief consists of regarding general truths within communicative exchanges.
Furthermore, Pearce and Cronen believe that these specific contexts exist in a hierarchical fashion.Interpersonal Relationships and Skills
This theory assumes that the bottom level of this hierarchy consists of the communicative act. Next, the hierarchy exists within the relationship context, then the episode context, followed by the self-concept context, and finally the archetype context. Social penetration theory[ edit ] Main article: Social penetration theory Developed by Irwin Altman and Dallas Taylor, the social penetration theory was made to provide conceptual framework that describes the development in interpersonal relationships.
This theory refers to the reciprocity of behaviors between two people who are in the process of developing a relationship. The behaviors vary based on the different levels of intimacy that a relationship encounters.
This analogy suggests that like an onion, personalities have "layers" that start from the outside what the public sees all the way to the core one's private self. Often, when a relationship begins to develop, it is customary for the individuals within the relationship to undergo a process of self-disclosure. These stages include the orientation, exploratory affective exchange, affective exchange, and stable exchange. Exploratory affective stage Next, individuals become somewhat more friendly and relaxed with their communication styles.
If the business owner has a problem with interpersonal skills, then his employees may not project the image he wants to convey. Communication With Employees When it comes to training employees, the business owner should learn to read the employees. The sooner a business owner picks up on the fact that the new concept has not resonated with the employee, the sooner the business owner can correct the problem. In addition to reading employees, business owners should listen to their employees.
As employees spend a lot of time with the actual customers of the business, the employees can articulate what customers seek when they patronize the business. Communication With the Public In using interpersonal skills, the better the business owner communicates his message to prospective customers, the more the business will prosper.
The business owner can use his interpersonal skills to inform the public of his goods or services and to persuade the public to purchase goods or services from his business.