BOUNDARIES iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan – Encyclopaedia Iranica
Indo-Afghan frontier line and also paved the way for the final demarcation of the . there was "improved prospect"17 of relationship between India and. Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India have . India also seeks the development of supply lines of electricity, oil and natural gas. Owing to the killing of an Indian national by Taliban militants in November , India deployed soldiers of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police . the Oxus River at the border with Central Asia. They brought with them their new religion – Islam. However, like India, Afghanistan those days was a fragment of.
After having been for twenty years the legal northeastern boundary of Afghanistan, the upper Amu Darya thus became so in fact. Anglo-Russian negotiations were begun inand an agreement was signed on 11 March Following a scenario that had become standard, the two regional superpowers appointed a joint commission, headed by Major General M. For a long time after its delimitation the artificial northern boundary of Afghanistan continued to be crossed frequently by migrations and commercial traffic, whether regular or occasional, from nearby or far away.
At the beginning of the 20th century there were still two caravansaries in Bukhara specifically for the lodging of Afghan merchants and caravans. The sovietization of Central Asia after brought the official closing of the frontier, which did not prevent significant numbers of Central Asian refugees from entering Afghanistan up to the middle of the s.What is Durand Line: Pakistan Afghanistan Relations and The Durand Line
Nevertheless, over the years the frontier has been progressively sealed, with the construction of a chain of guard posts and more frequent patrols on the Soviet side. Today it is closed to all civilian traffic, though occasionally it is breached by clandestine groups of Afghan guerrillas for example, raids against the city of Pyandzh, in Tajikistan, on 9 March and April Commercial traffic can cross only at three frontier posts, which also serve as compulsory transfer points Figure The distance of this hub from the capital 1, km from Kabul by road and its sparsely populated hinterland explain the modest traffic: It is the northern frontier post closest to Kabul kmand its Afghan hinterland is prosperous.
This bridge, which is m long, Its total cost At the Afghan end a modern harbor complex and a new city have been built. The following summer a joint commission arrived in the field to demarcate the boundary, and a final protocol was signed in Kabul in March, The principle followed was very simple: The frontier 76 km follows, at an altitude of more than 5, m, one of the major watersheds on the Asian continent, that which separates the Amu Darya basin to the west from the Tarim basin to the east see the detailed map published in Prescott, p.
For a long time the British remained indecisive about where to halt their conquests in the west. Faced with what amounted to a buffer zone between the Safavid and Mughal empires, the British newcomers had two main options.
The alternative was to limit contacts and causes of friction with the Pashtun and the Baluch by prudently fixing the Anglo-Indian frontier outside their territory along a line from Peshawar to Bannu to Jacobabad, parallel to the Indus, or even on the Indus itself, the only really natural northwestern frontier of India: After much hesitation, a compromise solution had to be adopted.
The increase in Pashtun raids on the Indus plains led to the temporary success of the partisans of the first solution. In order to forestall a major frontier crisis and to guarantee permanently the advantages already gained, the British government then agreed to a compromise boundary. His mission to Kabul, initially planned forcould not finally take place until September-November, A number of major rivers and mountain ranges, as well as several traditional tribal territories, were thus bisected by a boundary that is certainly the most unsatisfactory and the most artificial that can be imagined.
Durand, in the meantime named minister plenipotentiary to Tehran, took no part in the actual demarcation of the boundary that bears his name.
Iran–Pakistan border - Wikipedia
The main part of the work took place from April,to May,but a certain number of problems remained unsolved. The Kabul agreement was in fact so imprecise and the map annexed to it on so small a scale that differences in interpretation were innumerable and sometimes of long duration. Because of the length of the frontier, it was divided into four sectors, each assigned to a separate boundary commission.
It was the Hindu Kush commission, under the direction of R. The Afghans claimed the entire tribal territory of the Mohmand q.
The English commissioner, J. On other sections of the Durand Line the work of demarcation was easier, even though it was never entirely free from argument. The Kurram commission, under the direction of J. The boundary line here respects major tribal and religious alignments: The Waziristan commission, placed under the sole direction of an English officer, R. In view of the difficulty of the task, it divided into two subcomissions.
Afghanistan–India relations - Wikipedia
Anderson demarcated it with thirty-eight boundary posts. White King set up thirty-one boundary posts over a distance no greater than 81 km.
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The work was finished there in March and April, Under the supervision of a single British commissioner, Captain A. The tribal territories east of the Durand Line benefited throughout the entire colonial period from a statute granting them broad internal autonomy under British administrative tutelage. Furthermore, Afghanistan was able to maintain continuous influence over them by means of the regular despatch of emissaries and the invitation of tribal delegations to Kabul. The referendum that the British organized in the Tribal Agencies at the eleventh hour offered only two alternatives: It excluded all possibility of independence, in contrast to what was offered to the princely states of India, as well, of course, as any possibility of annexation of Afghanistan, which Kabul had demanded.
Since that date the Pakistani-Afghan boundary has not been officially recognized. It is therefore not drawn on the large-scale topographical maps produced by the Cartographic Institute of Kabul. The issue of Pashtunistan has continuously poisoned relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan. It even led to serious tension in, andeach instance leading to a partial blockade of the common boundary and a progressive shift of Afghan foreign trade to new transit outlets.
While most of the time the Taliban cross the Durand Line from Pakistan into Afghanistan and carry out attacks inside Afghan cities, sometimes they cross from the Afghanistan side of the border and attack Pakistani security forces and cities.
Recently, Taliban militants from Afghanistan's territory launched attacks on Pakistani border posts in which 34 Pakistani security forces were believed to be killed. Police said the attackers targeted a checkpost, destroyed two schools and several houses, while killing a number of civilians. Border crossings are very common, especially among Pashtuns who cross the border to meet relatives or to work. The movement of people crossing the border has largely been unchecked or uncontrolled,  although passports and visas are at times checked at official crossings.
In June the United States installed a biometric system at the border crossing near Spin Boldak aimed at improving the security situation and blocking the infiltration of insurgents into southern Afghanistan.
In response the Pakistani military reportedly shelled some Afghan villages in Afghanistan's NuristanKunarNangarhar, and Khost provinces resulting in a number of Afghan civilians being killed.
Although Pakistan claims it was an accident and just routine anti Taliban operations, some analysts believe that it could have been a show of strength by Islamabad. This strategic partnership is to support Afghanistan.
The agreement we signed with our friend will not affect our brother. The attack will not dilute India's development assistance and its contribution to rehabilitation and reconstruction of Afghanistan," India's ambassador to Kabul Amar Sinha said at the time. Modi said "It will stand as an enduring symbol of the ties of emotions and values, of affection and aspirations that bind us in a special relationship". President Ghani tweeted "Though, India and Afghanistan need no introduction, we are bound by a thousand ties… We have stood by each other in the best and worst of times".
Water from the dam will also serve irrigation purposes.
The dam is expected to help Afghanistan capitalize on opportunities that will open up once the India backed Chabahar project, linking the port in Iran to Central Asia's road and railway networks, is completed. Especially, it wants to improve transport connectivity and economic collaboration with countries in Central and South Asia. More such projects are likely to come up after Nato's withdrawal. Besides producing 42 MW power, this Indo-Afghan friendship dam provides irrigation for 75, hectares of farmland in the Chisti Sharif district.
India and Iran are set to ink a transit agreement on transporting goods to landlocked Afghanistan. This building was inaugurated on 25 December