Wavelength sound wave air acoustic sound waves calculation temperature frequency wave no air pressure speed of sound - Eberhard Sengpiel The motion relationship "distance = velocity × time" is the key to the basic wave relationship. The temperature-frequency relationship in nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency, biphasic electrical current was investigated by computer. Temperature is also a condition that affects the speed of sound. Heat, like sound, is a form of kinetic energy. Molecules at higher temperatures have more energy.
The maximal blocking temperature was not influenced by axon diameter.Arrhenius Equation Activation Energy and Rate Constant K Explained
Simulation analysis also revealed that activation of potassium channels might determine the temperature-frequency relationship. This study indicates that temperature might be one of the factors that cause the frequency discrepancy as reported in previous animal studies. Nerve block, Axonal conduction, High-frequency, Stimulation, Temperature Introduction A reversible nerve blocking method using biphasic, charge-balanced, electrical current could have many potential clinical applications, especially in the development of a neural prosthesis for the people with neurological disorders Bhadra et al.
Wien's displacement law
Previous studies using animals Bowman and McNeal, ; Reboul and Rosenblueth, ; Rosenblueth and Reboul, ; Tanner, have shown that high-frequency, biphasic, electrical current applied to peripheral nerves can block nerve conduction.
This conduction block is quickly reversible once the stimulation is terminated. In chronic applications a nerve blocking method employing biphasic, charge-balanced, electrical current will cause less damage to the nerve due to electro-chemical reactions than using uniphasic electrical current Agnew and McCreery, Therefore, recently attention has been focused on the axonal conduction block induced by high-frequency, biphasic, charge-balanced electrical current Bhadra et al. However, the minimal stimulation frequency required to induce the nerve block has varied significantly in reports from different investigators.
Our studies Tai et al.
What's the relationship btw frequency, wavelength, and temp? | Physics Forums
Studies using sciatic nerve of rats Bhadra and Kilgore, ; Williamson and Andrews, have shown that the stimulation frequency has to be higher than 10 kHz.
In a recent study using frog sciatic nerve Kilgore and Bhadra, it was shown that nerve conduction could be most efficiently blocked at a stimulation frequency as low as 3—5 kHz at room temperature.
The different nerves used by different investigators might contribute to the frequency differences, since they are from different species frog, rat, or cat. However, other experimental conditions may also play a role, including electrode geometry, experimental temperature, etc.
waves - Relationship between temperature and wavelength? - Physics Stack Exchange
It can be appreciated that a rather large amount of the Sun's radiation falls in the fairly small visible spectrum. The color of a star is determined by its temperature, according to Wien's law.
The preponderance of emission in the visible range, however, is not the case in most stars. While few stars are as hot as Rigel, stars cooler than the sun or even as cool as Betelgeuse are very commonplace. This is therefore the range of infrared wavelengths that pit viper snakes and passive IR cameras must sense.
When comparing the apparent color of lighting sources including fluorescent lightsLED lightingcomputer monitorsand photoflashit is customary to cite the color temperature.
Although the spectra of such lights are not accurately described by the black body radiation curve, a color temperature is quoted for which black body radiation would most closely match the subjective color of that source. Note that the informal description of the former bluish color as "cool" and the latter reddish as "warm" is exactly opposite the actual temperature change involved in black body radiation.
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Discovery[ edit ] The law is named for Wilhelm Wienwho derived it in based on a thermodynamic argument. He showed that, under slow expansion or contraction, the energy of light reflecting off the walls changes in exactly the same way as the frequency.
A general principle of thermodynamics is that a thermal equilibrium state, when expanded very slowly, stays in thermal equilibrium.