Overall, this relationship is least likely to emerge when corporal punishment comes only . The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children. There is some moderation of the relationship between corporal punishment and child . Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are . The Effect Of Corporal Punishment On Antisocial Behavior In Children. Grogan-Kaylor, A. (b). Relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by neighborhood. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, , .
The research questions this study addresses are as follows: Sincethe NLSY has conducted in-home interviews with a representative sample of young men and women and has collected information on their income and labor market experiences. Therefore, for this longitudinal analysis, data were extracted from the,and interviews of the NLSY. Data from the mother record and the child record were combined to form a single record for each mother-child pair for each year of the data.
To conform to statistical assumptions about independent and identical distributions of error terms, 1 mother-child pair was randomly selected from each family to be part of the analysis sample. The sample was limited because many of the measures included in the analysis were only collected for particular age ranges.
Relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by neighborhood.
Therefore, this sample includes children of a broader range of ages than does prior empirical work in this area. These procedures and limitations resulted in a final sample size of mother-child pairs. Measures Variables used in this analysis were chosen on the basis of their relevance to the substantive questions examined in this research project, their use in the previous empirical literature on the effects of corporal punishment, and their availability in the data.
Research indicates that the BPI factors fell into 2 broad subscales of internalizing behavior problems, representing constructs such as anxiety and depression, and externalizing behavior problems, representing such constructs as antisocial behavior, peer problems, and hyperactivity. This analysis used a continuous measure of the use of corporal punishment, taken from a question in the NLSY that asked each mother about the number of times she had spanked her child in the past week.
All of the questions about corporal punishment in the NLSY left it to the respondent to define what spanking means. The NLSY provided information on the cognitive stimulation that parents provide to their children as part of the Home Observational Measure of the Environment. The measure of cognitive stimulation consisted of 7 items and included such questions as whether or not parents read to their children or involve them in intellectually stimulating activities.
Research on Corporal Punishment – Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
To enable the comparison of information on cognitive stimulation across study years, the cognitive-stimulation scores for each year were standardized to have a mean of and a standard deviation of Similarly, the Home Observational Measure of the Environment collected information on the emotional support that parents afford their children. Emotional support was measured through 5 items such as whether parents talk to their children in a loving manner.
Questions measuring emotional support were summed into a scale. Standardized scores, again with a mean of and a standard deviation of 15, were also computed for the measure of emotional support.
Because the measure of emotional support included a measure of corporal punishment, simply including the emotional support scale in astatistical model where corporal punishment was also included as a separate independent variable would have created the possibility of confounding the relationship of corporal punishment and other elements of emotional support.
Therefore, this analysis followed a procedure suggested by Straus et al. The newly computed emotional support score was then standardized to have a mean of and a standard deviation of The NLSY included a measure of familial poverty. Starting inadult respondents in the NLSY have been asked about their perception of whether their neighborhood is a good neighborhood in which to raise children and their evaluations of other factors such as the level of neighborhood crime and whether neighborhood residents tend to follow rules.
Following the lead of Eamon, 11 questions from each year of the data were standardized with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 and then aggregated into a single scale for each year. Analytic method As noted earlier, the analysis sample contained a great deal of missing data. The presence of this missing data required the use of multiple imputation.
Multiple imputation 16 - 18 allows the analyst to generate parameter estimates that are not biased by the presence of missing data. The uncertainty generated by the presence of missing data is thus incorporated in the calculation of standard errors, confidence intervals, and P values.
In a multiple imputation analysis, regression type methods are used to impute plausible values for missing data. The analysis is then conducted on each data set and the parameter estimates and standard errors averaged following formulas described by Schafer.
In the statistical and methodological literature, one frequently discussed concern with many statistical methods is that they are unable to account for unmeasured variables that may be correlated with the observed independent variables that are included in a statistical model.
Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE.
Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1: Adult mental health problems included depressive affect, suicide attempts, moderate to heavy drinking, and street drug use.
Spanking loaded on the same factor as the physical and emotional abuse items. This indicates spanking accounts for additional model variance and improves our understanding of these outcomes. Thus, spanking is empirically similar to physical and emotional abuse and including spanking with abuse adds to our understanding of these mental health problems.
Relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by neighborhood.
Spanking should also be considered an ACE and addressed in efforts to prevent violence. Longitudinal associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with behavior problems in early childhood.
Developmental Psychology, 53 6— However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with early behavioral outcomes. To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.
The study sample consisted of 3, families from a nationally representative cohort study of urban families. Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5.
Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. The models controlled for a comprehensive set of possible confounders at the child, parent, and neighborhood levels.
Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children.
The indirect effect of low collective efficacy on behavior problems through corporal punishment was not significant. These findings highlight the importance of multilevel interventions that promote both neighborhood collective efficacy and non-physical discipline in early childhood.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Corporal punishment is a widely used, and widely endorsed form of parental discipline. Inter-partner violence places enormous stress upon women. The rate of corporal punishment is higher in homes where other types of domestic violence are also occurring. This study compares two groups: Using standardized measures, women in both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program, five weeks later.
The mothers who participated in the MEP program had significantly improved their parenting, such that they had less use of physical punishment post-intervention.
Findings suggest that a relatively brief community-based intervention program can reduce the use of parental physical punishment even in disadvantaged populations coping with stressful circumstances. Spanking and Child Outcomes: Journal of Family Psychology. Joan Lipuscek has written a really nice blog post thinking through some of the issues raised by our research. Gershoff and Grogan-Kaylor, Family Relations, 65,http: Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.
The majority of U. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers.
Research on Corporal Punishment
The present study analyzed the relationship between various parenting practices and an array of adolescent psychosocial outcomes in South Korea, while controlling for demographic, family, school, and neighborhood factors.
Parental monitoring was a predictor of positive self-perception. As a parental measure with a preventive-orientation, monitoring exhibited a trend toward reducing aggressive behavior. Factors external to the family, such as school and neighborhoods were also associated with mental health outcomes among Korean youth.
Corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior in Santiago, Chile. Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures.
Analysis was based on adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes.
Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors.
Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes. Parent discipline practices in an international sample: Associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness.
Child Development, 81 2 Participants included mothers and their 8- to year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Predictors of corporal punishment: Family Relations, 56 1 Corporal punishment has been the focus of considerable study over the past decade.
Some recent research suggesting that the use of corporal punishment may have significant long-term negative effects on children has prompted increasing exploration and interest in the issue. We utilized tobit regression analysis and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine both the prevalence and chronicity of spanking in a nationally representative sample of parents.
Among parents who used corporal punishment, being Protestant had a relatively large relationship with its use.
Further, findings indicate that it is easier to predict the incidence of corporal punishment than it is to predict frequency of use.