Ozone depletion and climate change - mafiathegame.info
Studies relevant to health effects of global warming or ozone depletion were reviewed. outcomes, dose-response relationships, and consistency with similar work. .. Renal transplant patients on chronic immunosuppressive therapy, for. The hole in the ozone layer is now steadily closing, but its repair could actually increase warming in the southern hemisphere, according to. Ozone depletion and global warming and their health effects are discussed in some . causal relationship of malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer to. UV radiation. .. Standard-setting and advice on protective clothing, etc.
The ozone hole The ozone hole. People, plants, and animals living under the ozone hole are harmed by the solar radiation now reaching the Earth's surface—where it causes health problems, from eye damage to skin cancer.
Stratospheric ozone is constantly produced by the action of the sun's ultraviolet radiation on oxygen molecules known as photochemical reactions. Although ozone is created primarily at tropical latitudes, large-scale air circulation patterns in the lower stratosphere move ozone toward the poles, where its concentration builds up. In addition to this global motion, strong winter polar vortices are also important to concentrating ozone at the poles.
During the continuously dark polar winter, the air inside the polar vortices becomes extremely cold, a necessary condition for polar stratospheric cloud formation.
Polar stratospheric clouds create the conditions for drastic ozone destruction, providing a surface for chlorine to change into ozone-destroying form. They generally last until the sun comes up in the spring. NASA In the s, scientists discovered that the ozone layer was thinning in the lower stratosphere, with particularly dramatic ozone loss—known as the "ozone hole"—in the Antarctic spring September and October.
Ozone depletion and climate change
These chemicals can remain in the atmosphere for decades to over a century. At the poles, CFCs attach to ice particles in clouds. When the sun comes out again in the polar spring, the ice particles melt, releasing the ozone-depleting molecules from the ice particle surfaces. Once released, these ozone-destroying molecules do their dirty work, breaking apart the molecular bonds in UV radiation-absorbing ozone.
The Montreal Protocol Anniversary poster of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layerthe first international cooperation effort to protect the ozone layer.
United Nations Environmental Program. CFCs were commonly found in refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents before the Montreal Protocol was agreed on in the s— an international commitment to phase out ozone-depleting chemicals that was universally ratified by all countries that participate in the UN.
The Montreal Protocol set an important precedent but more needs to be done. It appears unlikely that the decrease in ozone-depleting substances alone will lead to the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer to its pre concentration levels because of the competing and uncertain effects of further climate change.
In a worrying development, after an extremely cold winter in earlyfor the first time the ozone reduction in the Arctic was comparable to that in the Antarctic. Stratospheric ozone also has natural processes that remove it from the atmosphere. Tiny sulfate particles aerosols blasted into the stratosphere by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in caused measurable decreases in ozone for several years following the eruptions.
Does global warming have an impact on the stratospheric ozone layer? Temperature change in both the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere go in opposite directions--a telling sign of excess carbon dioxide in the troposphere.
Since the s, there has been a trend of increasing warming of the lower atmosphere and a cooling of the upper atmosphere. This warming-cooling dynamic creates conditions that lead to ozone loss. Observations show that as greenhouse gases increase and result in heating in the lower atmosphere tropospherea cooling is occurring in the upper atmosphere stratosphere.
Largely because heat from Earth's surface that normally would convey through the troposphere and stratosphere, and eventually escape to space, is now being trapped or confined to the troposphere. The increasing temperatures at the Earth's surface and decreasing temperatures in higher parts of the atmosphere can be partly explained using the blanket analogy.
When the ozone hole was first detected, there was emotional debate in which many U. It took a few years for scientists to show conclusively that human activity was causing the damage. It did not take long for scientists to invent other chemicals that could replace CFCs for industrial and commercial purposes, but would not harm the ozone layer. CFCs used as propellants were first banned in the United States in Thus, inclusion of STS issues in social studies instruction links what students are learning in social studies and science classes, providing an interdisciplinary focus.
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens. Ideas for the Classroom Applying scientific knowledge and taking citizen actions toward solving societal problems are integral to social studies education.
Is There a Connection Between the Ozone Hole and Global Warming? | Union of Concerned Scientists
The STS Investigation and Action instructional model sets forth four categories of citizenship actions: Introductory and investigative lessons provide prerequisite knowledge for citizenship actions. Each lesson includes social studies and science concepts as well as activities for investigating relationships between the concepts.
For example, students use colored transparency film and painted cans to learn about the transmission, absorption, and reflection of light energy. Several lessons in the STS unit on climate change are designed to help students appreciate the relationship between acquiring knowledge and using it to resolve problems that affect society.
Further, opportunities for action provide good creative outlets for students. To help them understand the model, students can decorate the bottles with magazine images to represent different sources of CO2. In the coming years, there will likely be debates in the U. Congress about what might be the best ways to slow global warming. Banning a single chemical, as was done for CFCs, will not be adequate. Agriculture, manufacturing, power generation, and transportation are a few of the human activities that could be affected by policies to reduce global warming.
Without taking sides, a social studies teacher can present some of the opposing viewpoints to the class while also listing the possible costs, benefits, and risks of various policy proposals.
Critical thinking will be called for. Who are the major figures in these debates? What interests do they represent? What sources of information do they cite? With a basic introduction to some of the atmospheric science, students should be able to follow much of this news and get involved if they wish.
We will all be affected by the outcome.
PUBLIC HEALTH EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND OZONE DEPLETION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NORTH AMERICA
Finally, teacher modeling of responsible citizenship actions is another suggestion for social studies instruction that emerges from research on elementary teachers. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Our unit of study on global climate change is online at www.
National Science Teachers Association, ; Project Synthesis was an initiative of the National Science Foundation in the late s in which experts critically examined the state of science education. Recommendations for the ideal state of science education were set forth in four goals: Cambridge University Press, ; J.
Mackenzie, Our Changing Planet: Prentice Hall, ; J. National Academy Press, World Meterological Organization, ; P. National Science Teachers Association, 7: Borza, Global Atmospheric Change: Pennsylvania State University, ; See also note 2. This article was originally submitted to the Elementary department of Social Education, whose editor is Mary Haas.
The IPCC also sets goals for developed and developing countries to meet for reducing the industrial production of greenhouse gases.