Ottomans Relationship With Christian Towns
Germany and the Ottoman Empire Orient and the continuation of the “special relationship” between Kaiser and Sultan. . possible coexistence of the Christians in Eastern Anatolia with their Muslim neighbours. against Turkey and in establishing the Allies' controversial peace settlements. Orhan soon was able to capture the remaining Byzantine towns in .. from the close marriage ties between the Ottoman and Christian courts. The relationship between the Ottomans and the Christians did not evolve around A number of German, Hungarian, Slavic, French, Venetian, .. spies and merchants in several Ottoman cities, Venice was the only source for.
The Ottomans, although a Muslim polity, did not hesitate to cooperate with Christians for practical reasons. Nevertheless, the misreading of the Ghaza Holy War literature 1 and the consequent romanticization of the Ottomans' struggle in carrying the banner of Islam conceal the true nature of relations between Muslims and Christians.
Rather than an inevitable conflict, what prevailed was cooperation in which cultural, ethnic, and religious boundaries seemed to disappear. The Ottomans came into contact and allied themselves with Christians on two levels. Firstly, Christian allies of the Ottomans were individuals; the Ottomans employed a number of Christians in their service, mostly, but not always, after they had converted.
It should not be forgotten that the Ottomans established their rule primarily in the Christian Balkansand that their pragmatism and the complex ethno-religious composition of the frontiers persuaded them to resort to using the service of Christians as a means of integration. The Christians were instrumental in the early successes of the Ottoman Empire 2and the Ottomans did not remain an alienated caste of rulers, but tried to incorporate local elements into their government in an effort to maximize the efficiency of their rule.
In addition to local elements, they did not hesitate to rely on the expertise of, and offer contracts to, foreign Christians whenever it suited their interests.
Secondly, the Ottomans had a number of Christian allies on the state level. They did not necessarily fight with their Christian neighbours all the time. The Grand Strategy of the Ottoman Empire evolved more around strategic, logistical, and pragmatic calculations than religious convictions, which enabled them to contract alliances and marriages, and make treaties with Christian polities. The Ottomans, on the periphery of the Islamic world, had to import soldiers and bureaucrats from the Muslim countries in the East.
This dearth of personnel of their own facilitated the penetration of Christian elements into the Ottoman state structure. As part of the Sultan's household, their loyalty was ensured by their lack of the independence and family ties that their Muslim counterparts enjoyed. Hass Murad Pasha d. Wherever they conquered a new region, they tried to conserve the old system of taxation and administration as well as integrate local elites into their own administration. Some were forced into conversion, like the son of the Bulgarian czar Constantine II c.
He and his father, a famous corsair in the service of the Habsburgs, were captured in There were two advantages for the Ottomans in doing this: Second, these future Ottoman vassals, growing up in the Christian enclave of the Ottoman court, became familiar with Ottoman culture and administration. After graduating from the palace school and proving himself to be an able commander, he was given a prebend in his native land, Albania, where he eventually turned against the Ottomans.
These Christians fought well: We do not know much about the early Ottoman navy. According to the scattered information in western sources, however, we do know that the Ottomans employed Christians in their fleets as early as the 15th century.
Inthe Venetian admiral Pietro Loredan ca. They did not hesitate to employ the poor but skilled seamen of the Western Mediterranean islandsespecially Sardinia and Corsicawho had no other opportunity to earn a living than by turning to piracy. Initially captured by the corsairs, he rose among their ranks and ended his brilliant career as the Ottoman Grand Admiral — One good example of such reliance can be observed in the Ottoman Arsenal. The Ottomans, in a pragmatic way, chose to rely almost exclusively on Christian expertise in naval affairs.
Some of these Christians were slaves and the Ottomans were reluctant to enfranchise them, aware of their contribution. Among those slaves, some converted and started families with local women.
As for those who remained Christian, the Ottomans built a lodging named Calabria Nuova. The latter went to great lengths to prevent the exodus of these poor Christians into the Ottoman service, without success.
The Ottomans employed Christians for their technical expertise in the army as well. Mehmed II, termed by A. Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks, but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority. The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective Sultans.
- Demographics of the Ottoman Empire
- Turks in Germany
- The Armenian Question and the Turkish-German Alliance (1913-1914)
It also flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia. After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region. He then laid siege to Vienna inbut failed to take the city. In the east, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians ingaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf.
This dual rule eventually failed and the two waged a new civil war further diminishing what was left of Byzantium's integrity in the eyes of her troublesome neighbors. John VI Cantacuzenus emerged triumphant once again and replaced the now exiled John V Palaeologus with his son Matthew Cantacuzenus as junior co-emperor. However, the Turks, under Osman I's son, Orhan Inow came into play by capturing the fort of Kallipolis Gallipoli in   and gaining access to the European mainland.
The arrival of the seemingly unbeatable Ottoman soldiers surrounding Constantinople caused a panic in Constantinople, capitalized by John V who, with the assistance of the Genoesestaged a coup and ousted John VI Cantacuzenus in November As a result, John VI would later become a monk.
His capture in ended his dreams of becoming Emperor and with it came an ephemeral defeat for the Ottomans who had favored the overthrow of John V. In Didymoteichon fell to the Turks. However, just like Alp Arslan of the Seljuk TurksMurad I left the taking of Byzantine territory to his vassals with Philippopolis falling after major campaigning between —4 and Adrianople succumbing to the Ottomans in Murad I crushed an army of Serbians on 26 September at the Battle of Maritsa  leading to the end of Serbian power.
The Ottomans were now poised to conquer Constantinople. In an attempt to stave off defeat, John V appealed to the Pope for support offering submission to Rome in return for military support. Despite publicly confessing the Roman Catholic Faith in St. Peter's BasilicaJohn V received no help. John V therefore was forced to turn to reason with his enemies, the Ottomans. Murad I and John V then came to an agreement whereby Byzantium would provide regular tribute in troops and money in exchange for security.
However, whilst Constantinople had been neutralized, the surrounding Christian powers were still a threat to the Ottomans and Asia Minor was not under complete Ottoman control. Other smaller states were subjugated as vassals, including the Serbs. Serbian resistance was crushed at the Battle of Kosovo inmuch of Bulgaria was taken in by Bayezid I  the Thunderbolt and in the last bastion of Bulgarian independence was wiped out when Vdiin[ clarification needed ] fell.
Map of the Middle East c.
Demographics of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
Following the occupation of Gallipolithe Ottomans Dark Green rapidly spread across the Balkans, annexing southern parts of Serbia in the northwest and giving them a major advantage over their Turkic Green rivals in Anatolia. Ottoman advances into the Balkans were aided by further Byzantine civil conflict — this time between John V Palaeologus and his eldest son Andronicus IV. Andronicus escaped with his son and secured Murad's aid by promising a higher tribute than John V's.
He seized Thessalonikaalarming the Ottoman Sultan in liberating parts of Greece from Ottoman rule. Fall of Philadelphia[ edit ] Whilst the civil war was raging, the Turks in Anatolia took the opportunity to seize Philadelphia inmarking the end of Byzantine rule in Anatolia, although by now the city was far from Imperial rule.
Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire
The city had long been under only nominal Imperial rule and its fall was of little strategic consequence to the Byzantines — whose Emperor had to suffer the humiliation of accompanying the Sultan during the campaign. Vassalage[ edit ] Following John V's death, Manuel II Palaeologus was able to secure his throne and establish good relations with the Sultan, becoming his vassal.
In return for Ottoman acceptance of his reign Manuel II was forced to dismantle the fortifications at the Golden Gatesomething that he did not take lightly to. The Ottoman Sultan then later changed his decision and demanded that a mosque and a Turkish colony be established in Constantinople. Manuel II called for a Crusade, which came in Despite his persecution of Christians,  Timur saved Constantinople.
The siege was finally broken when Timur of the Chagatai Mongols led an army into Anatolia, dismantling the network of beyliks loyal to the Ottoman Sultan. At the Battle of AnkaraTimur's forces routed Bayezid I's forces, a shocking defeat for which no one was prepared.
In the aftermath, the Ottoman Turks began fighting each other led by Bayezid's sons. The Ottoman civil war ended in when Mehmed I, with the support of the Byzantine Empire, defeated his opponents. The rare amity established between the two states would not last; the death of Mehmed I and the rise of Murad II in coupled with the ascent of John VIII to the Byzantine throne led to a deteriorated change in relations between the two.
Neither leader was content with the status quo. Murad II's furious reply eventually smashed this upstart and, inbegan the Siege of Thessalonica and Constantinople. The result was that he incited yet another rebellion in the Ottoman ranks — this time supporting Murad II brother's claim, Kucuk Mustafa.
The seemingly promising rebellion had its origins in Asia Minor with Bursa coming under siege. After a failed assault on ConstantinopleMurad II was forced to turn back his army and defeat Kucuk. With these defeats, the Byzantines were forced once more into vassalage —coins of silver were to be delivered to the Sultan as tribute on an annual basis. By this point all of Byzantium's major cities had fallen to the Ottomans who occupied almost half of Anatolia and most of the Balkans The Ottomans faced numerous opponents between and